The Millennium Prize Problems

The Millennium Prize Problems

Author: James Carlson

Publisher: American Mathematical Society, Clay Mathematics Institute

Published: 2023-09-14

Total Pages: 185

ISBN-13: 1470474603

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On August 8, 1900, at the second International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris, David Hilbert delivered his famous lecture in which he described twenty-three problems that were to play an influential role in mathematical research. A century later, on May 24, 2000, at a meeting at the Collège de France, the Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) announced the creation of a US$7 million prize fund for the solution of seven important classic problems which have resisted solution. The prize fund is divided equally among the seven problems. There is no time limit for their solution. The Millennium Prize Problems were selected by the founding Scientific Advisory Board of CMI—Alain Connes, Arthur Jaffe, Andrew Wiles, and Edward Witten—after consulting with other leading mathematicians. Their aim was somewhat different than that of Hilbert: not to define new challenges, but to record some of the most difficult issues with which mathematicians were struggling at the turn of the second millennium; to recognize achievement in mathematics of historical dimension; to elevate in the consciousness of the general public the fact that in mathematics, the frontier is still open and abounds in important unsolved problems; and to emphasize the importance of working towards a solution of the deepest, most difficult problems. The present volume sets forth the official description of each of the seven problems and the rules governing the prizes. It also contains an essay by Jeremy Gray on the history of prize problems in mathematics.


The Millennium Problems

The Millennium Problems

Author: Keith J. Devlin

Publisher: Granta Books

Published: 2005

Total Pages: 237

ISBN-13: 9781862077355

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In 2000, the Clay Foundation of Cambridge, Massachusetts, announced a historic competition: Whoever could solve any of seven extraordinarily difficult mathematical problems, and have the solution acknowledged as correct by the experts, would receive $1million in prize money. They encompass many of the most fascinating areas of pure and applied mathematics, from topology and number theory to particle physics, cryptography, computing and even aircraft design. Keith Devlin describes here what the seven problems are, how they came about, and what they mean for mathematics and science. In the hands of Devlin, each Millennium Problem becomes a fascinating window onto the deepest questions in the field.


The Poincare Conjecture

The Poincare Conjecture

Author: Donal O'Shea

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

Published: 2009-05-26

Total Pages: 306

ISBN-13: 0802718949

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Henri Poincaré was one of the greatest mathematicians of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. He revolutionized the field of topology, which studies properties of geometric configurations that are unchanged by stretching or twisting. The Poincaré conjecture lies at the heart of modern geometry and topology, and even pertains to the possible shape of the universe. The conjecture states that there is only one shape possible for a finite universe in which every loop can be contracted to a single point. Poincaré's conjecture is one of the seven "millennium problems" that bring a one-million-dollar award for a solution. Grigory Perelman, a Russian mathematician, has offered a proof that is likely to win the Fields Medal, the mathematical equivalent of a Nobel prize, in August 2006. He also will almost certainly share a Clay Institute millennium award. In telling the vibrant story of The Poincaré Conjecture, Donal O'Shea makes accessible to general readers for the first time the meaning of the conjecture, and brings alive the field of mathematics and the achievements of generations of mathematicians whose work have led to Perelman's proof of this famous conjecture.


What's Happening in the Mathematical Sciences

What's Happening in the Mathematical Sciences

Author: Barry Cipra

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

Published:

Total Pages: 108

ISBN-13: 9780821890431

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Mathematicians like to point out that mathematics is universal. In spite of this, most people continue to view it as either mundane (balancing a checkbook) or mysterious (cryptography). This fifth volume of the What's Happening series contradicts that view by showing that mathematics is indeed found everywhere-in science, art, history, and our everyday lives. Here is some of what you'll find in this volume: Mathematics and Science Mathematical biology: Mathematics was key tocracking the genetic code. Now, new mathematics is needed to understand the three-dimensional structure of the proteins produced from that code. Celestial mechanics and cosmology: New methods have revealed a multitude of solutions to the three-body problem. And other new work may answer one of cosmology'smost fundamental questions: What is the size and shape of the universe? Mathematics and Everyday Life Traffic jams: New models are helping researchers understand where traffic jams come from-and maybe what to do about them! Small worlds: Researchers have found a short distance from theory to applications in the study of small world networks. Elegance in Mathematics Beyond Fermat's Last Theorem: Number theorists are reaching higher ground after Wiles' astounding 1994 proof: new developments inthe elegant world of elliptic curves and modular functions. The Millennium Prize Problems: The Clay Mathematics Institute has offered a million dollars for solutions to seven important and difficult unsolved problems. These are just some of the topics of current interest that are covered in thislatest volume of What's Happening in the Mathematical Sciences. The book has broad appeal for a wide spectrum of mathematicians and scientists, from high school students through advanced-level graduates and researchers.


The Great Mathematical Problems

The Great Mathematical Problems

Author: Ian Stewart

Publisher: Profile Books

Published: 2013-03-07

Total Pages: 340

ISBN-13: 1847653510

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There are some mathematical problems whose significance goes beyond the ordinary - like Fermat's Last Theorem or Goldbach's Conjecture - they are the enigmas which define mathematics. The Great Mathematical Problems explains why these problems exist, why they matter, what drives mathematicians to incredible lengths to solve them and where they stand in the context of mathematics and science as a whole. It contains solved problems - like the Poincar Conjecture, cracked by the eccentric genius Grigori Perelman, who refused academic honours and a million-dollar prize for his work, and ones which, like the Riemann Hypothesis, remain baffling after centuries. Stewart is the guide to this mysterious and exciting world, showing how modern mathematicians constantly rise to the challenges set by their predecessors, as the great mathematical problems of the past succumb to the new techniques and ideas of the present.


The Girl who Played with Fire

The Girl who Played with Fire

Author: Stieg Larsson

Publisher: Vintage

Published: 2010

Total Pages: 738

ISBN-13: 0307476154

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When the reporters to a sex-trafficking exposé are murdered and computer hacker Lisbeth Salander is targeted as the killer, Mikael Blomkvist, the publisher of the exposé, investigates to clear Lisbeth's name.


Evaluating Social Programs and Problems

Evaluating Social Programs and Problems

Author: Stewart I. Donaldson

Publisher: Routledge

Published: 2003-01-30

Total Pages: 219

ISBN-13: 113563632X

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Today's evaluators are being challenged to help design and evaluate social programs intended to prevent and ameliorate complex social problems in a variety of settings, including schools, communities, and not-for-profit and for-profit organizations. Drawing upon the knowledge and experience of world-renowned evaluators, the goal of this new book is to provide the most up-to-date theorizing about how to practice evaluation in the new millennium. It features specific examples of evaluations of social programs and problems, including the strengths and weaknesses of the most popular and promising evaluation approaches, to help readers determine when particular methods are likely to be most effective. As such, it is the most comprehensive volume available on modern theories of evaluation practice. Evaluating Social Programs and Problems presents diverse, cutting-edge perspectives articulated by prominent evaluators and evaluation theorists on topics including, but not limited to: *Michael Scriven on evaluation as a trans-discipline; *Joseph S. Wholey on results-oriented management; *David Fetterman on empowerment evaluation; *Yvonna S. Lincoln on fourth-generation evaluation; *Donna M. Mertens on inclusive evaluation; *Stewart I. Donaldson on theory-driven evaluation; and *Melvin M. Mark on an integrated view of diverse visions for evaluation. Evaluating Social Programs and Problems is a valuable resource and should be considered required reading for practicing evaluators, evaluators-in-training, scholars and teachers of evaluation and research methods, and other professionals interested in improving social problem-solving efforts in the new millennium.


Birth of a Theorem

Birth of a Theorem

Author: Cédric Villani

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Published: 2015-04-14

Total Pages: 272

ISBN-13: 0374710236

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In 2010, French mathematician Cédric Villani received the Fields Medal, the most coveted prize in mathematics, in recognition of a proof which he devised with his close collaborator Clément Mouhot to explain one of the most surprising theories in classical physics. Birth of a Theorem is Villani's own account of the years leading up to the award. It invites readers inside the mind of a great mathematician as he wrestles with the most important work of his career. But you don't have to understand nonlinear Landau damping to love Birth of a Theorem. It doesn't simplify or overexplain; rather, it invites readers into collaboration. Villani's diaries, emails, and musings enmesh you in the process of discovery. You join him in unproductive lulls and late-night breakthroughs. You're privy to the dining-hall conversations at the world's greatest research institutions. Villani shares his favorite songs, his love of manga, and the imaginative stories he tells his children. In mathematics, as in any creative work, it is the thinker's whole life that propels discovery—and with Birth of a Theorem, Cédric Villani welcomes you into his.


The Millennium Prize Problems

The Millennium Prize Problems

Author: James A. Carlson

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

Published: 2006

Total Pages: 192

ISBN-13: 9780821836798

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"On May 24, 2000, at a meeting at the Collège de France, the Clay Mathematics Institute announced the creation of a US$7 million prize fund for the solution of seven important classic problems that have resisted solution. The prize fund is divided equally among the seven problems. There is no time limit for their solution. The Millennium Prize problems gives the official description of each of the seven problems and the rules governing the prizes"--Information screen.


Stable Stems

Stable Stems

Author: Daniel C. Isaksen

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

Published: 2020-02-13

Total Pages: 159

ISBN-13: 1470437880

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The author presents a detailed analysis of 2-complete stable homotopy groups, both in the classical context and in the motivic context over C. He uses the motivic May spectral sequence to compute the cohomology of the motivic Steenrod algebra over C through the 70-stem. He then uses the motivic Adams spectral sequence to obtain motivic stable homotopy groups through the 59-stem. He also describes the complete calculation to the 65-stem, but defers the proofs in this range to forthcoming publications. In addition to finding all Adams differentials, the author also resolves all hidden extensions by 2, η, and ν through the 59-stem, except for a few carefully enumerated exceptions that remain unknown. The analogous classical stable homotopy groups are easy consequences. The author also computes the motivic stable homotopy groups of the cofiber of the motivic element τ. This computation is essential for resolving hidden extensions in the Adams spectral sequence. He shows that the homotopy groups of the cofiber of τ are the same as the E2-page of the classical Adams-Novikov spectral sequence. This allows him to compute the classical Adams-Novikov spectral sequence, including differentials and hidden extensions, in a larger range than was previously known.