Elementary-level text by noted Soviet mathematician offers superb introduction to positive-integral elements of theory of continued fractions. Clear, straightforward presentation of the properties of the apparatus, the representation of numbers by continued fractions, and the measure theory of continued fractions. 1964 edition. Prefaces.

This book presents the arithmetic and metrical theory of regular continued fractions and is intended to be a modern version of A. Ya. Khintchine's classic of the same title. Besides new and simpler proofs for many of the standard topics, numerous numerical examples and applications are included (the continued fraction of e, Ostrowski representations and t-expansions, period lengths of quadratic surds, the general Pell's equation, homogeneous and inhomogeneous diophantine approximation, Hall's theorem, the Lagrange and Markov spectra, asymmetric approximation, etc). Suitable for upper level undergraduate and beginning graduate students, the presentation is self-contained and the metrical results are developed as strong laws of large numbers.

Traditionally a subject of number theory, continued fractions appear in dynamical systems, algebraic geometry, topology, and even celestial mechanics. The rise of computational geometry has resulted in renewed interest in multidimensional generalizations of continued fractions. Numerous classical theorems have been extended to the multidimensional case, casting light on phenomena in diverse areas of mathematics. This book introduces a new geometric vision of continued fractions. It covers several applications to questions related to such areas as Diophantine approximation, algebraic number theory, and toric geometry. The reader will find an overview of current progress in the geometric theory of multidimensional continued fractions accompanied by currently open problems. Whenever possible, we illustrate geometric constructions with figures and examples. Each chapter has exercises useful for undergraduate or graduate courses.

The book is essentially based on recent work of the authors. In order to unify and generalize the results obtained so far, new concepts have been introduced, e.g., an infinite order chain representation of the continued fraction expansion of irrationals, the conditional measures associated with, and the extended random variables corresponding to that representation. Also, such procedures as singularization and insertion allow to obtain most of the continued fraction expansions related to the regular continued fraction expansion. The authors present and prove with full details for the first time in book form, the most recent developments in solving the celebrated 1812 Gauss' problem which originated the metrical theory of continued fractions. At the same time, they study exhaustively the Perron-Frobenius operator, which is of basic importance in this theory, on various Banach spaces including that of functions of bounded variation on the unit interval. The book is of interest to research workers and advanced Ph.D. students in probability theory, stochastic processes and number theory.

Special functions are pervasive in all fields of science and industry. The most well-known application areas are in physics, engineering, chemistry, computer science and statistics. Because of their importance, several books and websites (see for instance http: functions.wolfram.com) and a large collection of papers have been devoted to these functions. Of the standard work on the subject, the Handbook of mathematical functions with formulas, graphs and mathematical tables edited by Milton Abramowitz and Irene Stegun, the American National Institute of Standards claims to have sold over 700 000 copies! But so far no project has been devoted to the systematic study of continued fraction representations for these functions. This handbook is the result of such an endeavour. We emphasise that only 10% of the continued fractions contained in this book, can also be found in the Abramowitz and Stegun project or at the Wolfram website!

There is a nineteen-year recurrence in the apparent position of the sun and moon against the background of the stars, a pattern observed long ago by the Babylonians. In the course of those nineteen years the Earth experiences 235 lunar cycles. Suppose we calculate the ratio of Earth's period about the sun to the moon's period about Earth. That ratio has 235/19 as one of its early continued fraction convergents, which explains the apparent periodicity. Exploring Continued Fractions explains this and other recurrent phenomena—astronomical transits and conjunctions, lifecycles of cicadas, eclipses—by way of continued fraction expansions. The deeper purpose is to find patterns, solve puzzles, and discover some appealing number theory. The reader will explore several algorithms for computing continued fractions, including some new to the literature. He or she will also explore the surprisingly large portion of number theory connected to continued fractions: Pythagorean triples, Diophantine equations, the Stern-Brocot tree, and a number of combinatorial sequences. The book features a pleasantly discursive style with excursions into music (The Well-Tempered Clavier), history (the Ishango bone and Plimpton 322), classics (the shape of More's Utopia) and whimsy (dropping a black hole on Earth's surface). Andy Simoson has won both the Chauvenet Prize and Pólya Award for expository writing from the MAA and his Voltaire's Riddle was a Choice magazine Outstanding Academic Title. This book is an enjoyable ramble through some beautiful mathematics. For most of the journey the only necessary prerequisites are a minimal familiarity with mathematical reasoning and a sense of fun.

Besides their well-known value in number theory, continued fractions are also a useful tool in modern numerical applications and computer science. The goal of the book is to revisit the almost forgotten classical theory and to contextualize it for contemporary numerical applications and signal processing, thus enabling students and scientist to apply classical mathematics on recent problems. The books tries to be mostly self-contained and to make the material accessible for all interested readers. This provides a new view from an applied perspective, combining the classical recursive techniques of continued fractions with orthogonal problems, moment problems, Prony’s problem of sparse recovery and the design of stable rational filters, which are all connected by continued fractions.

The history of continued fractions is certainly one of the longest among those of mathematical concepts, since it begins with Euclid's algorithm for the great est common divisor at least three centuries B.C. As it is often the case and like Monsieur Jourdain in Moliere's "Ie bourgeois gentilhomme" (who was speak ing in prose though he did not know he was doing so), continued fractions were used for many centuries before their real discovery. The history of continued fractions and Pade approximants is also quite im portant, since they played a leading role in the development of some branches of mathematics. For example, they were the basis for the proof of the tran scendence of 11' in 1882, an open problem for more than two thousand years, and also for our modern spectral theory of operators. Actually they still are of great interest in many fields of pure and applied mathematics and in numerical analysis, where they provide computer approximations to special functions and are connected to some convergence acceleration methods. Con tinued fractions are also used in number theory, computer science, automata, electronics, etc ...

The Euclidean algorithm is one of the oldest in mathematics, while the study of continued fractions as tools of approximation goes back at least to Euler and Legendre. While our understanding of continued fractions and related methods for simultaneous diophantine approximation has burgeoned over the course of the past decade and more, many of the results have not been brought together in book form. Continued fractions have been studied from the perspective of number theory, complex analysis, ergodic theory, dynamic processes, analysis of algorithms, and even theoretical physics, which has further complicated the situation.This book places special emphasis on continued fraction Cantor sets and the Hausdorff dimension, algorithms and analysis of algorithms, and multi-dimensional algorithms for simultaneous diophantine approximation. Extensive, attractive computer-generated graphics are presented, and the underlying algorithms are discussed and made available.

Mathematician Fritz Schweiger, whose academic affiliation is not provided, provides an introduction to a field of research that has seen remarkable progress in recent decades, concentrating on multidimensional continued fractions which can be described by fractional linear maps or equivalently by a set of (n + 1) x (n + 1) matrices. Addressing the question of periodicity, he refines the problem of convergence to the question of whether these algorithms give "good" simultaneous Diophantine approximations. He notes that these algorithms are not likely to provide such "good" approximations which satisfy the n-dimensional Dirichlet property. Also studied are the ergodic properties of these maps. Annotation copyrighted by Book News Inc., Portland, OR